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Green tea is made similarly to white tea by taking the bud and leaves of the tea plants, left to wither a little and then heated either by roasting, pan-frying, steaming. This process deactivated the enzymes in the leaves that are responsible for oxidation and preserves the green colour of the tea. Japanese green tea tends to use more steaming process to craft while Chiniese green tea majorly adopted pan-frying. The results are that Japanese green tea has a more grassy and crispy tastes while Chinese green tea is more nuttier and complex in taste. Green tea is also known to have the highest amount of caffeine among all other types of tea due to its low oxidized level, however the theanine exists in the tea plant synergized the caffeine and produce a more calming and relaxed state while being alerted. Green tea is also one of the most common base to make naturally scented tea such as Jasmine.

White tea is the least processed tea. It is named after all the white downy hair attached to the tea leaf, which gives a unique appearance to white tea. The most delicate white tea is handpicked with care, withered in sun or sometimes indoor depending on the climate and weather condition, dried slowly to achieve an ideal water content (~5%). The sun withering process allow mild oxidation to happen while retaining certain water content that will allow continuing oxidation after the tea is packed. Because of this way of low processing, the tea stays very close to its original state. White tea usually tastes very light, elegant, mostly floral in fragrane and sometimes nutty in tastes. White tea is generally distinguished into two types: ones that are produced with the fresh sprout and one or two small leaves and the ones that are made with bigger matured leaves. It could also be categorized into five types based on the sub variety of the species that is being harvested from and the part of the plants that is being used. The five types are Silver Needle (Bai hao Yin Zhen), Bai Mu tan (White Peony), Gong Mei, Shou Mei, Xin Gong Yi (New Craft). The flavour profile is unique to each type. White tea is known to have a very low oxidation level, therefore the colour of the brew is usually light yellow toned. However, white tea is also known to be especially beneficial when stored properly to further oxidize after the crafting process is over. Similar to post-fermented tea like Pu-er tea, the slow oxidation over time will further transform the flavour profile and health benefits of the tea. 

Yellow tea  is generally less known among the other five types of tea. Yellow used to be the colour of the imperial, and therefore yellow tea once was used as a tribute tea. The crafting process of yellow tea is similar to white tea and green tea. Fresh leaves are harvested to wither, it Is then pan fried, steamed, and then piled up with covers on top to let the tea soften, to let it absorb its own flavour in order to draw away the grassy taste of the tea so that the taste soften. The flavour profile is somewhere between white and green tea, while it has a hint of the refreshens like green tea and the softness of white tea at the same time.

Oolong tea, also called semi-oxidized tea, features the most complex crafting techniques and processes. It could be somewhere between 15-85% oxidized depending on the specific product and variety. As a result, it also features a wide range of products and flavours. It is made using two to three large leaves of the tea plant, sun withered and then go through a process call "shaking", which requires skilled workers to shake the leaves in a broad bamboo tray to bruise the edge of the leaf to the right amount so that the substance within the tea leaf release and react with the air. Then it is heated to stop the oxidation processes usually with a dryer that looks similar to a tumble dry machine. It is then sent to special craftsmen to roast the tea further using either charcoal or machine to further develop the flavour and aroma. Oolong is generally made into two kinds of forms: ball shaped and stripes. The flavour profile varies from floral, creamy, nutty to fruity, roasted and toasted depending on the specific technique, type of oolong variety and regions that produces oolong. As the colour of oolong gets darker, it suggests a higher oxidation level as well. The tea leaves of oolong typically presents a solid green to dark green (copper like colour) that unfolds to big leaves after brewing. Sometimes, you can even notice slightly darker, brown-red coloured edges around the leaves. The flavour profile is shares the complexity and sweetness and depth of black tea and the fresh, crispiness of green tea.

Black tea, also refered to as "red tea" in Mandarin, is known for its amber red colour and sweet taste and honey like texture. It is known to be a fully oxidated tea, in reality it is rather somewhere near 90-95% oxidated. The young leaves after harvest, withering,  are then hand- rolled to enhance oxidation, during the process tannis is release to make the flavour stronger and more  robust. Then is it oxidated in a controlled environment with 90% and above humidity and a temperature between 22-30 degree for 4-6 hours, during which the colour of the leaves should turn to darker red or amber. It is then heated dry and further selection before packaging. Nicely oxidated black tea should present a floral and fruity note without any grassy tones that are familiar to green tea or less processsed tea. The aroma of black tea is very comforting and soothing while the taste bring a multiple hints of sweetness, dries fruits and florals at the same time. 

Dark tea, also known as Post fermented tea is a complex type of tea. Pu -er tea is the most commenly known dark tea, within Puer tea there is also a division between cooked puer tea and raw pu er tea. There are also other types of dark tea that are crafted similarly to cook puer tea.


Pu er tea refers to post-fermented tea made with Camellia Sinensis Assamaric variety, it usually comes in formed of  compressed cakes and sometime loose leaves. Pu er Tea is probably the one that most resembles tea produced and exported historically from China. Traditionally speaking it is withered, rolled, pan-fried, selected and then packaged. The process resembles a lot the crafting techniques of green tea, while the only difference is that pu er raw tea is fried at a farily low temperature that ensures that the enzyme remains active to participate in further oxidation and fermentation after packaging. Pu er raw tea is not meant to be drank right away, but rather to be store for a long periods of time (10-20 years) for fermentation (oxidated followed by non-oxidated). A matured raw pu er tea has the freshness of green tea but the smooth and in-depth flavour of a darker tea and the colour of the brew exhibit amber or orange-yellow tone. Cook pu er tea, on the other hand, is a recent developed techniques to accelerates the speed of oxidation of raw pu er tea in an artifically controlled environment to shorten fermentation period. It go through the process of fermentation in a humid and warm space, where microbes and enzymes are encouraged to act actively to transform the look and the taste of the tea leaves. Cook pu er tea usually presents a brown-red and dark brown colour and presents a more earthy and oaky flavour profile. A cook pu er tea can also be store further to continuing transform over the years.


Pu er tea and dark tea are not the only post-fermented tea. White tea can also post ferment, but given its minimal processing, it experiences a much slower and milder reaction to the oxygen and microorganism within. However, the flavour profile and health benefit do prove to change signific ally after proper storage.  On the other hand, black tea and oolong tea could also further oxidate but depending on the level of processing when it was produced. Black tea that are pushed to oxidate quite heavily during the crafting process might have very little room to further oxidate, thus the effect could be barely noticeable. While good quality oolong tea, with the right oxidation level, could experience some level of changes in flavour and aroma over time.

Floral tea generally refers to dried flowers and tea infused with the aroma of certain flowers. Examples include Chrysmenthus, osmanthus, rose, lotus flower; jasmine green tea, jasmine white tea, osmanthus oolong, etc.

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